Koy Sanjaq (KS): The words of Jews off Koy Sanjaq, citizen because about 1951 into the Israel

Suggestions comes from Robert Hoberman (personal communication). This appears to be generally associate of the Jewish languages out-of a number of other metropolitan areas in the part as well, as well as Aqra and you will Rawanduz.

Although not, within dialect there is certainly a highly strange changes regarding h to h regarding the third person one possessive suffixes: resIh ‘his head’

Azerbaijan (Azer): What of the Jews out-of Iranian Azerbaijan, plus organizations inside the Urmi, Salmas, Basqale, Mahabad, and you can Yuksekova. Info is of Garbell (1965).

Halabja (Hala): The text of one’s Jews off Halabja to the Iran-Iraq edging. This is very near the Jewish languages of almost every other metropolises of your own area, and Saqqiz, Suleimaniya, https://datingranking.net/cs/scruff-recenze/ Sanandaj, Baneh, and you will Panjwin. Suggestions originates from my personal notes.

We’ll contrast this type of dialects with regard to twenty-five phonological, morphological, morpho-lexical, and you can lexical requirements. Following the Hetzron (1976, 98), you will find chosen just designs due to the fact conditions for class. We have picked a good disproportionate level of morphological standards, therefore will let them have special weight, once again after the Hetzron, however, most other mutual designs could be considered as really.

Note and the more challenging maintenance as well as installation out of for the Koy Sanjaq said by Hoberman (1985)

As we compare the new dialects from NENA we’re going to attempt to determine the newest the total amount that the newest languages express a definite development and that differs from Turoyo and you may Mandaic. At the same time, we’re going to come across bundles out of isoglosses in this NENA.

(1) Worry may be penultimate in most this new NA languages, plus Turoyo and you will Mandaic although not on the about three easternmost Jewish dialects, Jewish Azerbaijani, Koy Sanjaq, and you will Halabja, which often fret the past syllable. This type of dialects search, similar to this, as in numerous (Garbell 1965), to show an unusually solid influence out-of Kurdish.

(2) The NENA dialects possess combined h and you may x. For the Hertevin the result is h, and everywhere more it is x: Hertevin haye ‘life’ (Jastrow 1988, 189) and dmehli ‘I slept’ (Jastrow 1988, 18), Tkhuma xa:[Theta]a good ‘new’, Jilu ptIxli ‘I opened’ (Fox 1992, 45), and you can +damxotu ‘you sleep’ (Fox 1992, 55).(4)

One another Turoyo and Mandaic hold separate h and you can x. Particular NENA dialects have reintroduced h since the a borrowing from the bank regarding Kurdish or Arabic otherwise out-of Classical Syriac otherwise Hebrew.(5) not, the brand new inherited vocabulary constantly shows x. Instance, when you look at the Tisqopa you can find borrowed Arabic words, instance sahabi ‘friend’, that have h, but inherited terms and conditions for example laxma ‘bread’ continuously reveal x. (6)

(3) Every NENA dialects but Hertevin and you can Zakho have lost very hours of inherited. For example, in Aradhin we discover arba ‘four’, upra ‘earth’ equal to Syriac arb a and you can afra. For the Hertevin and also in Zakho, inherited are daily ?: Hertevin thus?an excellent ‘seven’ (Jastrow 1988, 99), Zakho sme?la ‘she heard’ (Meehan and you can Alon 1979, 189). A number of most other dialects some are managed given that ?, and, throughout the people, is gone totally. Certain languages has reintroduced lent from Arabic or Kurdish. Eg, Halabja possess ayza ‘good’.

(4) Into the prior to dialects from Aramaic, as in Tiberian Hebrew, t turned into [Theta] just after a great vowel. This alternation might have been lexicalized for the NENA, having sometimes t otherwise [Theta] distribute due to whole paradigms, whether or not preceded by a great vowel or not. Including, when you look at the Aradhin brand new verb ‘come’ is now offering [Theta] throughout: a[Theta]ya ‘it (fem.) comes’, as well as [Theta]e:la ‘she came’ (Krotkoff 1982, 70, 74). Then, in certain languages the fresh new phoneme [Theta] possess undergone extra alter. In a few languages [Theta] keeps matched to t, plus in someone else it has become s if not l.(7) In a single dialect, Jilu, it is h following become erased but in the beginning of a phrase. The 3 easternmost Jewish languages show brand new alarming shift out of [Theta] to just one. The outcome ones alter can be seen throughout the word ‘house’ and that looks in various dialects since become:[Thetan excellent]a great (Tkhuma), biya (Jilu), beta (Hertevin), bela (Halabja), and you may besa (Sanandaj Christian).